Motte and bailey
The first proper castles built in England were the motte and bailey castles.
motte - mound or ‘clot of earth’
bailey - enclosure
The Normans from France introduced the motte and bailey castle to England, when they invaded the country in 1066; it is believed that as many as 1000 motte and bailey castles were built in England by the Normans. The most important part of the motte and bailey castle was the keep; it was built on a huge mound (the motte). Mottes ranged from 8 metres to over 24 metres in height. The sides of the motte were so steep that it would have been impossible to run up them in one go, for added protection a deep ditch called the fosse was dug around the bottom of the motte. At the bottom of the motte was the bailey, the bailey varied in size from one to three acres. Inside the bailey, lived the town’s people and the knights. There were many buildings inside the bailey including stables, houses, storehouses, bakeries, kitchens, houses, and quarters for soldiers. The bailey was surrounded by a ditch, called a fosse.

model of a Norman motte and bailey castle